English Cromwellian Chairs
Chairs in puritan England had no carving or upholstery, lost their arms, and were rather severe looking and uninviting. The only turning permitted was bobbin turning, for some reason, as can be seen in the Cromwellian chair picture here.
Seats of English puritan chairs were often covered with thick strips of leather (cowhide) stretched over the framing of seat rails and uprights and were fastened by brass head nails.
This of course was not upholstery in the modern sense of cushioned seats and padded backs. The Puritans frowned on upholstering. Nevertheless it made such chairs, perhaps curiously, the most comfortable that had ever existed in the history of English furniture.
Such simple chairs were made of oak wood and had low backs and continued to be made through the Restoration era of Charles II.