Water Unions and Junctions
Picture 56 represents an india rubber closet joint for connecting the end of the flushing pipe with the fitting, which is accomplished by tightly binding the two ends of the rubber cone with copper wire as shown by the dotted lines.
Picture 56. India Rubber Cone Closet Joint.
Picture 57 shows the method of connection between a lead and iron pipe. An ordinary barrel union has one end formed with a male screw for iron pipe (Note - A male screw is one cut on the outside of a pipe, and a female screw is one cut on the inside of another pipe) and the other end fitted with a cap and lining, the latter having a tinned end for connecting to a lead pipe. The lining is attached to the lead pipe by means of a wiped soldered joint ; the screwed end is attached to the wrought-iron barrel by means of a socket, as shown.
Picture 57. Barrel Union, Lead to Iron.
Picture 58 shows a barrel union for joining two iron pipes.
Picture 58. Barrel Union, Iron to Iron.
Picture 59 shows a connector joint, a type much used in hot-water work. The back nut is screwed on to the end of a long thread, and the socket is then screwed on ; the pipe to be connected is placed in position, and the socket is afterwards screwed over it. The back nut is then screwed tightly to the end of the socket, the joint being made secure with a packing of red lead and hemp.
Picture 59. "Connector" Joint, Iron to Iron.
Picture 60 shows a boiler screw with cap and lining, in which it will be seen that the fly nut secures the fitting to the cistern, the cap secures the lining to the boiler screw, and the lead pipe is connected to the lining by means of an ordinary wiped soldered joint. Inside the cap a leather washer is always used, in order to form a perfect joint between the ends of the lining and the boiler screws.
Picture 60. Boiler Screw.
Picture 61 shows the junction of a waste to a bath, in which it will be seen that this is similar in principle to that last described, the hatched portion representing the thickness of the bath.
Picture 61. Waste To Bath.
Next: Water Taps.