Geometrical Elevation of the Temple of Jupiter
A. The Stairs. B. Door of the Temple. C. Arched Window.
Geometrical Elevation of the Temple of Jupiter.
It is extremely probable that the Arched Window to this Temple has been opened since the Time of Diocletian, Light being seldom admitted, (except by the Door) into the Temples of the Ancients. The Construction of the Arch itself appeared to me more modern than the other Parts of the Temple, and seems greatly to strengthen this Conjecture.
In restoring this Temple, I have placed a Statue over each Column, as I found by the Cramps that remain in the Plinth over the Entablature, that it had been originally decorated in that Manner, though now there are none of the Figures remaining. The Grandeur of the Collonade, which is Areostylos, is in some Degree impaired by the double Pedestal, which goes round the Temple; I should have suspected that Necessity had obliged Diocletian's Architect to use this Method of adding Height to Columns which the Emperor had commissioned from Greece, or perhaps transported from Italy. But upon examining that Building in Palmyra, Plate XLV. which, from the Latin Inscription, is thought to be the Work of Diocletian, I find that the Architect uses a double Pedestal to the Columns there, exactly in the same Manner as in this Temple.
Nor is it less remarkable, that at both Places the Friezes over the Doors are often left out; and in some of the Entablatures the Architraves are so broad, as almost to equal the Height of both Frieze and Cornice. Befides these Circumstances there is so great a Similarity in some of the Members and Enrichments of both these Buildings, that it serves, in my Opinion, as an additional Proof of the Justice of Mr. Wood's Hypotheris in ascribing that Temple to our Emperor.
Having made particular Mention of the Roof of this Temple in the Description of the General Plan, I fhall only obferve, that the Form of a pointed Roof in Temples of this Kind, is uncommon in the ancient Buildings of the Romans, as the Flat Dome seems to have been their more favorite Form: But having found the Roman Stamp upon the Tiles that still cover it, there was no Room left to doubt its Antiquity.
The Stairs to the Temple seem to me very defective, by being so much confined between the large Pedastals on each Side. Had they extended the whole Width of the four Columns in Front, it would undoubtedly have added greatly to the magnificence of the Building.
The Walls and Pedestal of the Temple are of Stone from Tragurium; the Columns of Granite; the Capitals and Entablature of White Marble.